Hugo Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931. By the third quarter of 1932, the black SS uniform (to replace the SA brown shirts) was designed by SS-Oberführer Prof. Karl Diebitsch and Walter Heck. Boss produced the uniforms along with the brown SA shirts and the black-and-brown uniforms of the HJ. French and Polish prisoners of war forced into labour were used. After World War II, Boss was fined for his support of Nazism and was not allowed to vote. He died of a tooth abscess in 1948.